Pamela A. Matson 編 (2012) Seeds of Sustainability

  • Pamela A. MATSON ed., 2012: Seeds of Sustainability — Lessons from the Birthplace of the Green Revolution in Agriculture. Washington DC: Island Press, 292 pp. ISBN 978-4-59726-525-6 (pbk.)

2012年12月、地球環境問題、とくに人間活動による窒素循環の改変のもたらす問題を考えながら、American Geophysical Unionという学会の大会に出席した。そのセッションGC12B 「Sustainable Future: Climate, Resources, and Development」[別ブログ2012-12-20記事]で、Pamela Matsonさんの講演を聞いた。そのときわたしが聞き取った内容の要約をそのブログ記事に書いた。総論的部分も興味深いのだが、ここにはMatsonさん自身の研究の報告に関する部分だけ再録する。

MatsonはメキシコのYaqui Valleyの事例について述べた。ここは「緑の革命」のもとになった品種をつくった国際トウモロコシ・小麦研究所のあるところだが、研究所ではなくてまわりの農村についてだ。持続可能性にかかわるいろいろな問題のうちに、農地への肥料のやりすぎがある。窒素肥料のやりすぎは、大気へのN2O放出や、水域への硝酸イオンやアンモニウムイオンの流出による環境問題を起こす。しかし肥料が安いので農民は大量に使ってしまう。適量にしたほうが農民にとっても支出が減ってよいはずなので、その知識を伝えるような会合を何度もしたのだが、2002年の時点では肥料使用はふえ続けていた。農民に助言を与える信用組合が、土壌の不均一性や気候の変動に関する不確かさによるリスクの低い策を選ぶ。そこで、農民および信用組合の助言者と協力して、場所ごとに不確かさを減らすことにした。リアルタイムに植物の窒素を測定することも試みた。

その事例については本を出したとプレゼンテーション中でちょっと紹介されていたので、帰ってから注文した。残念ながら2年近くたっても読みとおせていないのだが、窒素循環の地球科学・生態学、農作物の科学、農業経営や農村社会、水資源管理、さらに農地のある流域から流れる川がそそぐ海域の生態系と水産業など、多分野の話題を含んでいる。

(追ってもう少し書こうと思っているが、いつになるか未定。)

折り返しのあとに詳しい目次をつける。

Contents
Timeline for Agricultural Development in the Yaqui Valley, 1890-2004
Acronyms
Preface
Part 1: The Birthplace of the Green Revolution
Chapter 1: Why the Yaqui Valley? An Introduction /Pamela Matson and Walter Falcon
– The Story of Agriculture in the Yaqui Valley
– Integrative Research in the Valley
– Organization of the Book
Chapter 2: A Brief History of the Yaqui Valley /Ashley Dean
– Early History: 500s – 1930s
– Research, Development, and Intensification: 1940 – 1989
– – The Green Revolution
– – Land Stratification and Redistribution
– Biophysical and Policy Shocks: 1990 – 2004
– The Mid-decade “Snapshot” of the Valley
– Acknowledgments
Part 2: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Sustainability
Chapter 3: Looking for Win-Wins in Intensive Agriculture /Pamela Matson, Rosamond Naylor, and Ivan Ortiz-Monasterio
– Integrating Environmental, Agronomic, and Economic Aspects of Fertilizer Use
– – Surveying Farmers and Estimating Farm Budgets
– – Studying the Effects of Fertilizer Practices
– – Is There a Win-Win Situation Here?
– The Challenge of Making Win-Wins Real
– Acknowledgments
Chapter 4: Ecosystems and Land-use Change in the Yaqui Valley: Does Agricultural Intensification “Spare Land for Nature”? /Pamela Matson and Peter Jewett
– The Landscape Prior to Intensive Agriculture
– The Agricultural Landscape of the Last Fifty Years
– – The Agricultural District
– – Regions Outside the Agricultural District
– Does Intensitifaction in the Yaqui Valley Spare Land for Nature?
– Acknowledgments
Chapter 5: Linking Knowledge with Action for Sustainable Development: A Case Study of Change and Effectiveness /Ellen McCullough and Pamela Matson
– Knowledge Systems of the Yaqui Valley
– – A Brief Site Description
– – Players in the Knowledge System
– Evolution in the Functioning of the Knowledge System
– – Transfer of New Germplasm
– – Planting Systems
– – Fertilizer Management
– – Crop Diversification
– – Water Management
– What Can Be Learned from the Yaqui Valley Knowledge System?
– Acknowledgments
Chapter 6: Exploring Vulnerability in the Yaqui Valley Human-Environment System /Pamela Matson, Amy Luers, and Ellen McCullough
– Vulnerability in Water Resources and the Agricultural System
– – Stressors in the Coupled Human-Environment System
– – Application of the Vulnerability Framework: Responses to Drought
– – Responses to Social Stressors
– From Concepts to Measures of Vulnerability
– – An Assessment of Vulnerability of Wheat Yields
– Vulnerability Analysis: The Way Forward
– Acknowledgments
Chapter 7: From Wheat to Waves and Back Again: Connections between the Yaqui Valley and the Gulf of California /Michael Beman and Amy Luers
– Gulf of California Large Marine Ecosystem
– Sea to Land and Land to Sea Connections in the Gulf of California and Yaqui Valley Region
– – Gulf of California Seescape and Connections to Land
– – Changing Landscapes and Connections with the Sea
– – Changes along the Shore
– – Blurring the Line between Land and Sea
– Perspectives on Connectivity and Change in the Gulf of California and Yaqui Valley
– Acknowledgments
Part 3: Elements of the Yaqui Valley System
Chapter 8: The Yaqui Valley’s Agricultural Transition to a More Open Economy /Rosamond Naylor and Walter Falcon
– Agricultural Reform and the Transition to Globalization
– – Toward Decoupled Policies
– – Toward Decentralized Factor Markets
– – – Fertilizer
– – – Credit
– – – Land
– – – Water
– – Toward Freer Trade
– Unexpected Policy and Economic Shocks
– – Macroeconomic Shocks
– – World Price Shocks
– Renewed Commodity Protection
– Farmers’ Responses to Changed Circumstances
– – Changes in Crop and Animal Production
– – Altered Credit and Marketing Arrangements
– – Changed Farming Practices
– – Expanded Operational Holdings
– Changing Profitability of Farming in the Yaqui Valley
– Environmental Costs and Benefits
– Conclusions, Opportunities Missed, and Lessons
– Acknowledgments
Chapter 9: Agricultural Research and Management at the Field Scale /Ivan Ortiz-Monasterio and David Lobell
– The Dynamic Cropping System, 1981 – 2008
– Improving Nitrogen Use Efficiecy and Reducing Nitrogen Losses
– – Logistical Challenges and Their Impact on Timing of Application
– – Uncertainty about How Much Nitrogen Is Needed
– – Site-specific Nitrogen Recommendations
– – Technology and Knowledge Transfer
– Water-Use Efficiency
– Yields Constraints in Farmer’s Fields
– – Meeting Data Needs
– – Temporal Yield Variability
– – Spatial Yield Variability
– – Technology Transfer
– – Implications
– Lessons Learned and Opportunities Lost
– Recommendations
– Acknowledgments
Chapter 10: Nitrogen in the Yaqui Valley: Sources, Transfers, and Consequences /Toby Ahrens, John Harrison, Michael Beman, Peter Jewett, and Pamela Matson
– Nitrogen Cycling in Agroeconomics
– In the Fields
– Through the Canals
– To Coastal Waters
– Nonagricultural Sources of Nitrogen to Surface Waters
– – Livestock
– – Aquaculture
– – Human Populations
– Yaqui Valley Nitrogen Transformations and Transfers Placed in COntext
– Crosscutting Themes
– Acknowledgments
Chapter 11: Water Resources Management in the Yaqui Valley /Gerrit Schoups, Lee Addams, David S. Battisti, Ellen McCullough, and José Luis Minjares
– The History of Water Resources and Drought
– – Historical Development of Irrigated Agriculture
– – The Current Water Resource Situation
– – Drought
– Needs for Research
– Surface Water
– Groundwater
– Toward Sustainable Water Management
– – Increased Groundwater Pumping
– – – Effects of Limited Pumping Capacity
– – – Effects of Pumping Costs and Saltwater Intrusion
– – – Effects of Groundwater Salinity
– – Increased Water-Use Efficiency
– Conclusions and Recommendations
– – Summary of Research Outcomes
– – Lessons Learned
– – Future Directions
– Acknowledgments
Part 4: Conclusions
Chapter 12: Lessons Learned /Pamela Matson, Rosamond Naylor, and Ivan Ortiz-Monasterio
– Lessons for Sustainaiblity Transitions in the Yaqui Valley and Beyond
– Critical Missing Pieces in Studies of Yaqui Valley Human-Environmental Systems
– – Population Dynamics in the Yaqui Valley
– – Adequate Temporal Databases
– Reflections on Research Organization and Participation
– Reflections on Impacts in Academic and Research Institutions
– – Impacts in Our Home Institutions
– – Lessons for Mobilizing Science and Technology for Sustainability
– Concluding Thoughts
Notes
References
Contributors
Index

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